Greenawalt Family History
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This is our research paper, documenting the Greenawalt Family History, which is also provided on this web page.

Our Colonial ancestor was Nicholas Greenawalt who entered the Revolutionary War in 1776 from Allen Town Northampton County Pennsylvania. [1] Nicholas married Mary Miller, and it was through their son, Peter Greenawalt, and his wife Sarah Coover our family line continues.

Nicholas's German heritage begins with his great grandfather, Nicolaus Grüenewald, who was born October 16th 1654 in Breitenbach, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany.

We also identified Greenawalt Men in the History of Lehigh County Pennsylvania, [2] which began with Abraham Greenawalt who immigrated to Colonial Philadelphia on September 27th 1740, and the list ended with the name of Nicholas Greenawalt, who immigrated on September 19th 1771. All of the Greenawalt people we identified were form the Palatinate region of Germany.

Another Colonial Pennsylvania Grünewald member points to Germany along the Alsace region of France. John Philip (Lorentz) Greenawalt (1725-1802) was born in Buhl Germany, and immigrated to Colonial Philadelphia 1749. [3] 

There is a German village named Grünewald near Wittlich Germany, in present day Rhineland Palatinate region. The name of Grünewald is also the name of a municipality located in the Oberspreewald-Lausitz District in the southern part of Brandenburg, Germany, and a forest region in Germany located in the western side of Berlin, on the east side of the Havel River, mainly in the Grünewald district. However these two areas are considered outside of the Palatinate region of Germany.

There is also evidence that suggest the Grünewald families migrated into Palatinate Germany from the Swiss border. Here are variations in the spelling of the Grünewald name roughly translates to Greenwood.

Palatinate Germany

If our German ancestors have Swiss roots, either through marriage or migration into the Palatinate region, it most likely began in 1674 with Prince Karl Ludwig. The Prince wanted to restore his wasted farmlands productivity, so he offered limited religious liberty to the people of the Swiss Confederation region in exchange for settling on his lands.

We’re still not sure if the 18th century Swiss Confederation bordered the 18th century Palatinate region. Someday we’ll get to know these details, but we’re still learning the German geography and other historical aspects of our German origins. What we think is early historians seemed to have lumped many German Colonel America immigrants into a big melting pot known as Palatinate Germans. This is true when we researched our Richstein-Wrightstone family. Other problem was in understanding the dynamic changes with German history, and its impact in their geography. So, we don’t have a complete understanding of what municipalities, districts, counties, villages, cites, or towns that would have been considered part of the 18th century Palatinate Germany.

The south-western and southern German region borders southern France and the Basel regions areas of Switzerland. This is the area where the Rhine River begins its journey, flowing from its eastern Swiss Alps origins through western Germany, including the Palatinate, to the North Sea in the area of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The Rhine River was the main German waterway near the border of France and Switzerland that many of our German ancestors would have used to make their way to Rotterdam, where they would board ships bound for Colonial America. The western region of the Palatinate includes present day cities of Mainz, Kaiserslautern, Koblenz, Trier, and the Palatinate Forest region.

Today Palatinate Germany is the south-western portion of Germany, which is one quarter of the country. It is known as the Rhineland Palatinate (Upper Palatinate), and Palatinate (Lower Palatinate). The Upper Palatinate borders eastern Bavaria, and the Lower Palatinate borders between Luxembourg and the Rhine River. The north-western part of the Upper Palatinate is densely forested and mountainous. This area contains a mountain range of the Black Forest, which has a panoramic view across the Rhine Valley into the neighboring Luxembourg, and Alsace and Vosges regions of France. The most famous meal of Palatinate is the saumagen, literally "sow's stomach". It’s a dish that consists of a thick, crispy-fried casing stuffed with a mixture of pork, potatoes, and seasonings. Each year in February, our family has a meal we call Pig Stomach, traditionally prepared, celebrating our strong German heritage.

However, the town of Bühl where John Philip Greenawalt was born cannot be linked to the Palatinate region of Germany. Currently, Bühl is a town in the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 6 miles South of Baden-Baden. Bühl is the third largest town in Rastatt County.

Emigration from Germany

We know Nicholas arrived in Colonial Pennsylvania under very similar circumstances as did many of our other Colonial German ancestors; notably Johann Jacob Richstein, Johann Philip Klinger, Ulrich Sollenberger, Michael Hengst, Caspar Diller, and Melchior and Christopher Baer ~ Barr. These families began arriving during the early and mid part of the 18th century to an America booming in opportunities. [4] All of these ancestors bordered ships out of Rotterdam, and made stops in Cowes to clear British customs, before proceeding to the Colonies. Cowes is located on the Isle of Wright, a county and the largest island of England, located in the English Channel. [5] 

During the years 1749-1755 approximately 30,000 German emigrants would pay around $48 for their passage to Philadelphia; 2700 in Halifax Nova Scotia; 1300 in Charleston South Carolina; about 1,600 Germans to Baltimore (6 ships 1752-1755); and about 720 Germans to New England (3 ships 1751-1753); making at least 36,300 German emigrants in these years. [6]  During times of wars German emigration to Colonial America dwindled considerably, including during the years 1744-1748 (War of the Austrian Succession), 1755-1763 (Sea battles during the 7-years War), 1776-1783 (American Revolution War), and 1806-1815 (Napoleonic War).

As many as 50% to 70% of all Germans that came to Colonial America in the 18th century were indentured servants, and there were a number of ways to be indentured. One way was to have a family in Colonial America pay for another family member’s passage in return for their labor on Colonial farms and businesses. Another way to reach Colonial America was to find a family emigrating to Colonial America, and for the price of passage, promise to work for them after they both arrived in their new home land. This is how our Mankamyer family came to Pennsylvania in the early 19th century.

German people also sold their services for a number of years in exchange for passage to the ship's captain. Agents of sailing companies often contracted to bring them to America where the agent had the right to sell the “redemptioners’”labor for a certain number of years to pay for his transportation. These “indentured servants” or “redemptioners’” were virtually slaves until the contract expired; [7] they were, quite understandably, the first people in America to protest the slave traffic. [8] A list of indenture registrations in Philadelphia from 1772 to 1773 reveals that most indentured servants worked five to seven years to pay their masters for their $48 fare. [9] 

This is an excerpt from a list of people from the ship Tyger; who were recorded as being indentured. “...At Messrs. Willing & Morris's Store, at Philadelphia, the 19th of November 1771. Present: George Bryan, Esquire. The Foreigners whose Names are underwritten, imported in the Ship Tyger, George Johnson, Master, from Rotterdam but last from Cowes, did this day take and subscribe the foregoing Oaths & Qualifications. Consigned to Messrs Willing & Morris 130 in the List...” [10] The registrar’s statement at the start of the ship list of names who were indentured states there are “130 in the list”, but only 118 names were found, and reproduced in the works of the Strassburger and Hinkel reference. That means 12 names are lost to history and are unaccounted for. Nicholas’s name did not appear, but we’ll keep researching to see if Nicholas was indentured.

Another possibility for why Nicholas came to Pennsylvania and eventually 1776 Allen Town Pennsylvania; he may have worked for William Allen, who was a wealthy shipping merchant, mayor of Philadelphia, and Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, who laid out Allen’s Town in 1762. Mr. Allen had other types of arrangements with German people of the Moravian Church in the Bethlehem area of Pennsylvania, whose members also lived and worked within the Allen Town village.In this respect Nicholas may have also been indentured with the church, but there is no evidence of this. By the time of the American Revolution,Allen’s Town was little more than a small village of German farmers and tradesmen, who spoke the German dialect known today as Pennsylvania Dutch or the high German language. [11]

Finding Nicholas's Colonial Greenawalt Connection

We want to outline what we know of Nicholas and his family in Germany. This will help us locate any Colonial Pennsylvania connection when Nicholas emigrated from Germany. This information comes to us by way of David Greenawalt. Nicholas Greenawalt, and his family heritage. [12] 

Johannes Nicolaus Grünewald was born October 16th 1654 in Breitenbach, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany. He married Anna Margaretha Straub on June 30th 1685. Anna was born March 8th 1659 in Dusenbach, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany. One child we know being reported is Friedrich Grünewald

Friedrich was born January 16th 1691 in Raibach, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany. He married on July 30th 1711 [13]  to Anna Margaretha Hofferberth. We don't know who their children are, but one child was named Johannes Grünewald.

The Greenawalt family were based around the Karlsruhe area of Germany, and branched out from there in all directions. The church records from Kirchbrombach were strewed throughout, and church records from Hassloch did not contain any records for a Nicholas Grünewald or similar for this time period. We speculate that Nicholas, upon his father's death in 1766, left from Woerth on the Main on a barge to Rotterdam. There's no information between 1766 or when Nicholas boarded the ship Tyger in 1771, where all males over 16 years were listed by name.

Colonial Pennsylvania Greenawalt's

When the earliest known Grünenwald arrived in 1740 in Colonial Pennsylvania, they settled in Lancaster County, which was formed in 1729. By 1752 Northampton County Pennsylvania was formed from Bucks County, one of the founding counties of Colonial Pennsylvania, and Berks County was formed from Bucks, Lancaster, and Philadelphia Counties. [15] 

These are the counties that the Greenawalt families settled in; Lancaster, Northampton, and Berks. This is where we researched who Nicholas's family or Colonial Pennsylvania contact might have been when he arrived in 1771. Besides Nicholas, there were ten other Colonial Lehigh County Pennsylvania Greenawalt men and their families listed on page 774 of The History of Lehigh County. The following are a few that we were able to identify.

A little over one year before Nicholas arrived in Philadelphia, another Greenawalt arrived.
1.  Jacob Grunenwald arrived in Colonial Philadelphia on the ship Minerva from Rotterdam on September 17th 1770. The ship also stopped at Cowes, and had 204 passengers. [16]  This Jacob (Jacob Griinenwaldt) also took the Oath of Allegiance.  [17]  We are having some difficulty separating this Jacob from the other Jacob Greenawalt men. We believe that his Jacob may be one of the strongest clues to who Nicholas's family is.

A number of Greenawalt men enlisted in the Revolutionary War, and later filed for pensions: Nicholas Greenawalt; John Philip Greenawalt; Abraham Greenawalt; Jacob Greenawalt. [18]
1.  Nicholas Grünewald ~ Greenawalt is our Great-Great-Great-Great Grandfather. Nicholas's Revolutionary War pension record, Pension Claim W 2103, made no reference to his birth origin or his parents. It did indicate the date of his birth of October 1754, and his enlistment in 1776 Allentown Pennsylvania.

Nicholas took his Oath of Allegiance and Qualifications on November 19th1771, [19]  which was after the period when Colonial America experienced the highest number of emigrants; 1749-1755.

We could not find him on any indentured servant lists, [20]  but this does not mean he was not formally or informally indenture to a Grünewald family member, or other person or organization, already established in Colonial Pennsylvania.

After Nicholas arrived and took his oath of qualification in Philadelphia at age 17, we believe he went to the Allen Town Northampton County Pennsylvania region. He is identified in the History of Lehigh County as living in Franklin County. We believe this connects him to a Colonial Pennsylvania roots in early Northampton County and another Greenawalt family member; possibly an older brother or Greenawalt Uncle.

Five years after arriving in Colonial Philadelphia, at twenty one years old, Nicholas enlisted in Allen Town Northampton County Pennsylvania in May 1776. Allentown is now located in Lehigh County which was formed in 1812.  [21]  This is a file documenting his Revolutionary War Service. Allentown is now located in Lehigh County which was formed as a county in 1812.


2.  John Philip Greenawalt whose pension claim is R. 4288. Lancaster County Pennsylvania. John Philip (Lorentz) Greenawalt was born June 10th 1725 in (Hassock) Hesse Wald-Michelbach or Boehl Germany. He died February 22nd 1802 while living in Lebanon Township Lancaster Pennsylvania. He came to America, arriving in Philadelphia on September 15th 1749 on the ship Phoenix. He was commissioned a Colonel of the 1st  Battalion of Lancaster Pennsylvania. [22] 

Johan Phillip Greenawalt was born in Colonial Pennsylvania on June 17th 1756, and died July 17th 1834. He served in the revolutionary war as a lieutenant in the 2nd battalion of the Lancaster County Militia. Johan Phillip's son was Philip Lorenz Grünenwald of Lebanon Township Lancaster County Pennsylvania. Phillip Lorenz married Maria Margaret Fosser. [23]  John Phillip Greenawalt is the third son of Abraham Grünenwald (b.1700), the earliest know Greenawalt to arrive in Colonial Pennsylvania.


3.  Abraham Greenwald, Greenwolt, Grünenwald, pension claim B. 39609 enlisted in York City, York County Pennsylvania. [24] and [25] Abraham is the son of Abraham in #6 below, and the grandson son of Abraham Grünenwald (b.1700), the earliest know Greenawalt to arrive in Colonial Pennsylvania.

4.  Jacob Greenwald, Grunnwalt, or John Jacob, enlisted in Weisenberg Township Northampton County in 1777. Allentown was the largest city in Weisenberg Township, and the town of Wesienberg is about four miles west of Allentown. This Jacob would have been as born in 1752, and by 1833 he lived to be over eighty years old in Greenwich Township Berks County Pennsylvania.  [26] 

This John Jacob Greenawalt served in the Revolutionary War, enlisting one year after Nicholas enlisted in 1776, both in the Allen Town area. This appears to be more than a coincidence. We believe that this John Jacob is the son of John Jacob Grünenwald, born in 1723 Germany, immigrated to Philadelphia in 1741 on the Ship Lydia out of Rotterdam in the Netherlands. This Johan Jacob settled in the Bucks County area, which is why we believe his son returned there after the war. [27] 
The following Greenawalt members may be the same people or related with the people already cited above.
1.  Abraham Greenawalt was born in 1724 Germany. Another record on Abraham: He is the second son of Abraham Grünenwald (b.1700). Between 1777 and 1778, from Manor Township, he served as a private 8th class in the Lancaster County Pennsylvania Militia under Captain Ziegler's 5thCompany. Abraham first married Elizabeth Knight in 1759, and second to Susanna Weyland on November 3rd1766 at the First Reform church Millersville Pennsylvania. Lancaster County. [28]

2.  John Jacob Greenawalt was born August 23rd1761 in York County. He served as a drummer in the revolutionary war 1778 in the 3rd battalion Northampton County Militia under Col. Michael Probst. He married Elizabeth Rahl and settled in Franklin County PA. This John Jacob is the son of Christopher Grünenwald, who is the first son born to Abraham Grünenwald (b.1770). Christopher was born 1731 in Germany, and died in Manchester Township York County Pennsylvania on October 5th 1805.  [29]

John Jacob and Abraham Greenawalt families may have had connections with our Nicholas in Germany, but by the time they reached Colonial Pennsylvania a direct lineage cannot be clearly established.

3. Jacob Greenawalt of Harrisburg Dauphin County Pennsylvania. This Greenawalt was a prominent business man in Harrisburg during the early 19thcentury. The Historical Society of Dauphin County, located in Harrisburg, has a very large file on this individual. The file contains handwritten journals of Jacob's life. [30]

4. There was a Peter Grienwald who was naturalized in Pennsylvania on April 3rd or 11th1763, from Richmond Township Berks County. [31] 

5. On page 772 of the Grünewald family in the History of Lehigh County Pennsylvania,  [32] Nicholas and a Henry Greenawalt was identified as living in Franklin County Pennsylvania. This suggests two Greenawalt men left present day Lehigh County to live in Franklin County.

At least one researcher believes John Jacob and Jacob Greenawalt men are not related:“… due to the differences in age and the fact that they settled in separate counties it is believed that Johan Jacob and Abraham were not direct family members…”  [33]

If Nicholas did live and work for a family member, there are a few possible connections:
1. John Greenawalt was the father of Johann Heinrich (Henry) Greenawalt (1732-1811) who moved from Hanover York County to Franklin County Pennsylvania during the Revolutionary War. Henry emigrated from old Wurtemberg Germany, indentured in 1720. [34]

2. John Jacob Grünenwald who enlisted in Weisenberg Township Northampton County in 1777. This John Jacob Greenawalt later settled in Berks County, which was established in 1752. One of his sons was Peter Grienwald who was naturalized in Pennsylvania on April 3rd or 11th1763, from Richmond Township Berks County. [35]

3. Jacob Greenawalt is the grandson of Abraham Grünenwald (b.1770). Abraham is a well documented patriarch for many of the Greenawalt families in and around Northampton, Lehigh, Lancaster, York, Cumberland, and Franklin Counties of Pennsylvania. We are researching the family of Abraham Grünenwald (b.1770). [36]

End Notes

[1.] Revolutionary War Pension Record for Nicholas Greenawalt, record W-2103, The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001.

[2.] Page 774, The Greenawalt Family, The History of Lehigh County Pennsylvania, and Genealogical and Biographical Record of it’s Families, by Charles Rhodes Roberts, Rev John Baer Stoudt, Rev Thomas H. Krick, and William J. Dietrich, Vol II, Lehigh Valley Publishing Company LTD, Allentown Pennsylvania, 1914.

[3.] Letter about John Philip (Lorentz) Greenawalt, October 28th 1936, from Richard M. Kleberg of Corpus Christi, Texas to Harold W. Dreining, Veterans Administration Washington D.C.

[4.] High years of emigration included the years 1709, 1727, 1732, 1738, 1742-1744, 1749-1754, 1764, 1770-1773, 1785-1802 (especially 1792-1796), The Palatine Project, ProGenealogists, Inc., 455 East 400 South, Suite 300, Salt Lake City, UT 84111

[5.] Gregory Allen Greenawalt, Eugene Allen Greenawalt, and research collaborated by Sandra Emerick Genealogist for the Lancaster County PA. Historical Society, Lancaster Pennsylvania.

[6.] Ships carrying Palatines from Germany to Philadelphia from 1727 to 1808, Pennsylvania German Pioneers, Pennsylvania German Pioneers by Ralph B. Strassburger and William J. Hinke, published in 1934 by the Pennsylvania German Society, Norristown, PA.

[7.] Abuse of redemptioners on board ship is well documented. The redemptioners who became indentured servants ended up working as farm laborers, household help, in workshops, and even as store clerks. They were typically prevented from marrying until after their term of service. Often, the terms of separation after the contract stipulated that the servant receive a suit of clothing and sometimes a shovel and/or an axe. Also, some contracts required the master to teach the servant to read and write from the Bible.

[8.] History of Berks County, Pennsylvania, J. Wallace Luckenbill, Fleetwood Junior High School Lectures, 1938-1945 Mittelberger, Gottlieb. Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the Year 1754.

[9.] Mittelberger, Gottlieb. Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the Year 1754.

[10.] Vol. 1, p.736: Pennsylvania German Pioneers, Strassburger & Hinke, published 1934, Record of Indentures Bound Out As Apprentices, Servants, Etc. and of German and Other Redemptioners in the Office of the Mayor of the City of Philadelphia from October 3, 1771 to October 5, 1773, Genealogical Publishing Company; pub. 1973.

[11.] Today Pennsylvania Dutch refers to emigrants and the descendants of emigrants from southwestern Germany Palatinate and Switzerland.

[12.] This information came to us through the efforts of David Greenawalt, great-great-great-great Grandson of Nicholas Greenawalt, who lives in Erlangen, Germany.

[13.] Friedrich Gruenewald and Anna Margaretha Hofferberth source listed the married date as 1771, but this must be a mistake when it was transcribed.

[14.] An original copy of the church book was not possible, since they said the writing was too faded to copy. Transribed from the original record from the Evangelical Church in Kirchbrombach, Brombachtal, Odenwald, Starkenburg, Hessen Germany, Taylor ~ Graham Library, 479 County Line Road, York Springs PA [15.] The Handy Book for Genealogists, United States of America;, 8th Edition, published by The Everton Publishers, Inc., Logan, Utah. County Courthouse Book, compiled by Elizabeth Petty Bentley, Genealogical Publishing Company, Baltimore, MD, 1990.

[16.] Thirty Thousand Names of German, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania.

[17.] Page 496, Who Took the Oath of Allegiance, 1727-1775, Immigrants into Pennsylvania, List of Foreigners Imported in the Ship Minerva, Thomas Arnott, Captain, From Rotterdam, Last from Cowes, Qualified September 17th1771. [18.] May 7th1925 Letter, W. W. Greist, 10th District, Lancaster Pennsylvania, to Wilder S. Metcalf, Commissioner of Pensions, Washington DC.

[19.] 32-VoL. XVII, page 496, Who Took the Oath of Allegiance, 1727-1775, Immigrants into Pennsylvania, List of Foreigners Imported in the Ship Tyger, George Johnston Captain, From Rotterdam, Last from Cowes, Qualified November 19th1771

[20.] Vol. 1, p.736: Pennsylvania German Pioneers, Strassburger & Hinke, published 1934, Record of Indentures Bound Out As Apprentices, Servants, Etc. and of German and Other Redemptioners in the Office of the Mayor of the City of Philadelphia from October 3, 1771 to October 5, 1773, Genealogical Publishing Company; pub. 1973.

[21.] Nicholas Greenawalt Revolutionary War Service Timeline, Taylor ~ Graham Library, 479 County Line Road York Springs PA.

[22.] Letter about John Philip (Lorentz) Greenawalt, October 28th 1936, from Richard M. Kleberg of Corpus Christi, Texas to Harold W. Dreining, Veterans Administration Washington D.C.

[23.] Gregory Allen Greenawalt, Eugene Allen Greenawalt, and research collaborated by Sandra Emerick Genealogist for the Lancaster County PA. Historical Society, Lancaster Pennsylvania.

[24.] May 7th 1925 Letter, W. W. Greist, 10th District, Lancaster Pennsylvania, to Wilder S. Metcalf, Commissioner of Pensions, Washington DC.

[25.] October 8th1926 letter, Revolutionary War Pension Claim, 2250, E.W. Morgan, Commissioner

[26.] October 8th1926 letter, Revolutionary War Pension Claim, 2250, E.W. Morgan, Commissioner

[27.] Gregory Allen Greenawalt, Eugene Allen Greenawalt, and research collaborated by Sandra Emerick Genealogist for the Lancaster County PA. Historical Society, Lancaster Pennsylvania.

[28.] Gregory Allen Greenawalt, Eugene Allen Greenawalt, and research collaborated by Sandra Emerick Genealogist for the Lancaster County PA. Historical Society, Lancaster Pennsylvania.

[29.] Gregory Allen Greenawalt, Eugene Allen Greenawalt, and research collaborated by Sandra Emerick Genealogist for the Lancaster County PA. Historical Society, Lancaster Pennsylvania.

[30.] File MG407, Greenawalt Collection, The Historical Society of Dauphin County - 219 South Front Street, Harrisburg, PA 17104.

[31.] Page 113, Denizations and naturalizations in the British colonies in America, 1607-1775, By Lloyd DeWitt Bockstruck, Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Persons Naturalized in the Province of Pennsylvania [1740-1773]. Harrisburg, PA, USA: 1876.

[32.] Page 774, The Greenawalt Family, The History of Lehigh County Pennsylvania, and Genealogical and Biographical Record of it’s Families, by Charles Rhodes Roberts, Rev John Baer Stoudt, Rev Thomas H. Krick, and William J. Dietrich, Vol II, Lehigh Valley Publishing Company LTD, Allentown Pennsylvania, 1914.

[33.] Gregory Allen Greenawalt, Eugene Allen Greenawalt, and research collaborated by Sandra Emerick Genealogist for the Lancaster County PA. Historical Society, Lancaster Pennsylvania.

[34.] Biographical annals of Franklin County, Pennsylvania : containing genealogical records of representative families, including many of the early settlers, and biographical sketches of prominent citizens.. Chicago: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1905.

[35.] Page 113, Denizations and naturalizations in the British colonies in America, 1607-1775, By Lloyd DeWitt Bockstruck, Pennsylvania Supreme Court. Persons Naturalized in the Province of Pennsylvania [1740-1773]. Harrisburg, PA, USA: 1876.

[36.] Letter about John Philip (Lorentz) Greenawalt, October 28th 1936, from Richard M. Kleberg of Corpus Cristi, Texas to Harold W. Dreining, Veterans Administration Washington D.C.

Bibliography

1. Mittelberger, Gottlieb. Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the Year 1754 Grubb, Farley (June 1986). Redemptioner Immigration to Pennsylvania: Evidence on Contract Choice and Profitability. 46 (2 ed.). Journal of Economic History. pp. 407 to 418.

2. Klepp, Farley Grubb, Anne Pfaelzer de Ortiz, Susan E (2006). Souls for Sale: Two German Redemptioners Come to Revolutionary America. Pennsylvania State University Press.

3. Diffenderffer, Frank Ried (1977). The German immigration into Pennsylvania through the port of Philadelphia from 1700 to 1775 and The Redemptioners. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.

4. Herrick, Cheesman Abiah. White Servitude in Pennsylvania: Indentured and Redemption Labor in Colony and Commonwealth. New York: Negro Universities Press 1969, c1926 ix, 330 p., facsims., bibliography.

5. Pennsylvania in the War of the Revolution, Battalions and Line, 1775-1783, edited by John Blair Linn and William H. Engle M.D., Volume 1, Harrisburg Pennsylvania, Lanes, Hart, State Printer 1880.

6. Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot, May 10 to August 16, 1777, John W. Jordan, Lewis Nicola and Walter Stewart, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 22, No. 1 (1898), pp. 57-70 (article consists of 14 pages), Published by: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

7. Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. X, Samuel Hazard, Published under the direction of Matthew S. Quay, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Edited by John B. Linn and William H. Engle M.D. Printed for the Pennsylvania Secretary of the Commonwealth, Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction, Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg Pennsylvania, 1880.

8. New York 1776: The Continentals' first battle (Campaign), David Smith, Osprey Publishing (March 18, 2008).

9. Crossing the Delaware: George Washington and the Battle of Trenton, by Arlan Dean.

10. The Pennsylvania-German in the revolutionary war ..., Volume 17, Pages 1-542, By Henry Melchior Muhlenberg Richards.

11. Colonel Samuel Miles and Colonel Samuel Atlee Journals, Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. 1, 2nd Series, Page 512.

12. Colonel David Broadhead’s letter, Volume V, 1st series, page 21.