Nicholas Greenawalt Family History
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Our Greenawalt relationship is between our great grandfather William Graham and his marriage to Sara Greenawalt. Sarah’s father was Henry Greenawalt, whoes grandfather was Peter Greenawalt; the son of Nicholas Greenawalt. This is our research paper, documenting the Nicholas Greenawalt (1754-1831).

Nicholas Greenawalt’s family begins with his great grandfather, Nicolaus Grüenewald, who was born October 16th1654 in Breitenbach, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany. He married Anna Margaretha Straub on June 30th1685. Anna was born March 8th1659 in Dusenbach, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany. [1] Their son was Friedrich Grüenewald,who is our Nicholas’s grandfather.

Friedrich Grüenewald was born January 16th1691 in Raibach, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany. He died October 15th1761. Friedrich married on July 30th1711 [2] to Anna Margaretha Hofferberth. Anna was born December 27th1682 in Mümling-Grumbach Germany, and died May 2nd1750. Their son was Johannes Grüenewald who is our Nicholas’s father.

Johannes Grüenewald (1712 – 1766)

Johannes Grüenewald was born April 19th1712 in Raibach, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany. He died February 3rd1766. Johannes married Eva Catherina (Katherina) Reeg (vonHoff ) on January 8th1737. Eva was born March 5th1717 in Gumpersberg, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany, and she died March 25th1770. Eva Catherina (Katherina) Reeg (vonHoff ) family lineage is also reported.

Johannes and Eva lived in Gumpersberg, Wurttemberg (now Hessen) Germany, where their children were born. The border of Wurttemberg stretched in the 18th century further north then than now. All data on their children are from church records. [3]

i.    Johann Peter Grünewald was born March 20th1738, and died March 23rd1738.

ii.   Elisabetha Grünewald was born May 14th1739.

iii. Johannes Grünewald was born October 30th1740, and died March 4th1809. He married May 17th1768 to Elisabetha Catherina Arras.

iv.   Maria Elisabetha Grünewald was born December 15th1742, and died May 30th1792. She married Johann Ernst of Rodenhausen on July 14th1761.

v.    Elisabetha Margaretha Grünewald was born November 19th1744, and died August 15th1745.

vi.;   Johann Michael Grünewald was born July 9th1746.

vii.  Maria Magdalena Grünewald was born November 27th1749.

viii. Johann Nicholaus Grünewald was born October 16th1755, Gumpersberg, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany.

ix.   Johann Conrad Grünewald was born October 16th1755, and died February 14th1807.

x.    Johann Jacob was born July 7th1759, and died July 28th1759.

The Greenawalt family were based around the Karlsruhe area of Germany, and branched out from there in all directions. The church records from Kirchbrombach were strewed throughout, and church records from Hassloch did not contain any records for a Nicholas Grünewald or similar for this time period. We speculate that Nicholas, upon his father’s death in 1766, left from Woerth on the Main on a barge to Rotterdam. There’s no information between 1766 or when Nicholas boarded the ship Tyger in 1771, where all males over 16 years were listed by name.

There is one recorded family story that came from the family of Guy Angle Greenawalt, who is Nicholas Greenawalt’s great-great grandson. Guy recalls his cousin David Franklin Greenawalt [4] talking about the origins of their Greenawalt family; “...the original Greenawalt came from Germany during the potato famine and settled in Maryland about 1740...” [5]

Another possibility came from David Greenawalt; upon Nicholas’s father’s death in 1766, Nicholas left his home in the Gumpersberg Woerth area of Germany, and went on a barge to Rotterdam, in the Netherlands. There’s no information between 1766 or when Nicholas boarded the ship Tyger in 1771 for his voyage to Colonial Pennsylvania.

•    The only recorded potato famine that would have occurred during German migration to Colonial America, occurred in southeastern Germany of Saxony 1771–1772. 18th century Saxony Germany is not considered part of the Palatinate region. In 1756, Saxony joined the coalition of Austria, France and Russia against Prussia. Prussia invaded Saxony in August 1756, precipitating the Seven Years War. The Prussians quickly defeated Saxony and incorporated the Saxon army into the Prussian army. At the end of the Seven Years War (1756-1763), Saxony once again became an independent state. Many German males of military recruiting age left Germany to avoid being pressed into military service.

•    History indicates that the first Germans came south to Maryland from Pennsylvania in 1728. In 1732 Lord Baltimore offered 200 acres; tax free to any farmers willing to locate in western Maryland. By 1745 these German families settled the town of Frederick, and in 1762 Jonathan Hager established Hagerstown. It is also a fact that Nicholas’s great grandson, Samuel C. Greenawalt (1827-1911), left Franklin County for the Fredrick area of Washington County Maryland, before migrating to Illinois. Was there a family connection?

There is evidence that the family members of Abraham Greenawalt (b.1700) moved into Maryland from their homes in Lancaster County Pennsylvania. There is no evidence Nicholas migrated into Maryland before or after he enlisted in 1776 Allen Town Pennsylvania. The Maryland connection in 1740 may be an obvious historical conclusion that David Greenawalt reached during his research and that he did not write about. But we will continue to look into this aspect of our Greenawalt family, and in using David’s genealogical work as the basis for what we believe to be facts about our Greenawalt family.

A list we found of this family in the History of Lehigh County Pennsylvania, [6] identified Nicholas Greenawalt who immigrated on September 19th1771, and lives in Franklin County Pennsylvania. On page 452 of the Biographical Annals of Franklin County Pennsylvania, in a biographical sketch of Johann Heinrich Greenawalt, Nicholas, Hans, and Henry are identified as other Greenawalt men who emigrated to Franklin County Pennsylvania. [7]

Henry is Johann Heinrich Greenawalt (1723-1811), who was from York County Pennsylvania, and who may also be from the Abraham Greenawalt (b.1700) family line.

Hans Greenawalt immigrated to Colonial Pennsylvania September 1746.

Johann Nicholaus Grünewald(1755 – 1831)

Nicholas Greenawalt was born Johann Nicolaus Grünewald on October 16th1755 to Johannes Grüenewald and Eva Catherina (Katherina) Reeg (vonHoff )in Gumpersberg, Wurttemberg (now Hessen) Germany to Johannes Grünewald and Eva Catherina (Katherina) Reeg (vonHoff). All other Colonial records have Nicholas being born October 6th1754. However, the parent’s and children’s dates are from church records. [8] 

Nicholas [9] was fifteen years old when he left his family in Gumpersberg, Michelstadt, Starkenburg Germany for Rotterdam and boarded the ship Tyger, piloted and mastered by Georg Johnston. We believe that Nicholas lied about his age, indicating he was sixteen and not fifteen, in order to obtain a passage on the ship. The ship stopped in Cowes [10] to clear British Customs, before moving on to Colonial Philadelphia. [11]  Nicholas just turned seventeen years old when he landed in Colonial Pennsylvania on November 19th 1771. [12] On the same day at Messrs, Willing & Morris's Store in Philadelphia, Nicholas took his Oath of Allegiance and Qualifications. [13] According to records, the ship list contained 130 passengers, but only 118 names are found taking the Oaths and Qualifications Allegiance. There were 12 names that did not appear in the records for taking the oath. [14]

At barely 17 years old, Nicholas took his Oath of Allegiance and Qualifications on November 19th1771, [15] which was after the period when Colonial America experienced the highest number of emigrants; 1749-1755. Five years after arriving in Colonial Philadelphia, at twenty one years old, Nicholas enlisted in Allen Town Northampton County in May 1776. [16]  We could not find him on any indentured servant lists, [17] but this does not mean he was not formally or informally indenture to a Grünewald family member, or other person or organization, already established in Colonial Pennsylvania.

We are still attempting to obtain a clear record with his signature for taking the oath. There is no formal record of Nicholas being indentured to someone who paid for his ship’s passage. If he was not indentured, his $48 to $60 fare from Rotterdam to Colonial Philadelphia would have most likely been paid for by the Captain of the ship, who would have sold Nicholas’s cost to a family member, church, or local businessman.

After landing at the ports of Philadelphia, Nicholas immediately traveled the Reading Road to the Berks and Northampton County region of Pennsylvania. He most likely settled in a German enclave located in the Allen Town region. Most of the Allen Town residents were descendants from southwestern Germany Palatinate and Switzerland. This group of German farmers and tradesman spoke the German dialect known today as Pennsylvania Dutch or the High German language. [18]

We believe Nicholas had a good German education, and that he could read and write his native language. He may have even been schooled in the English language before coming to Colonial Pennsylvania. We know that he learned to read and write English by the time he was 22 years old when he enlisted in 1776 Allen Town for the Revolutionary War. Here's a paper that outlines Nicholas's Revolutionary War timeline and his activities. After Nicholas mustered out of the war in 1780, he reappeared in 1790 Franklin County Pennsylvania, [19] along with two other Greenawalt families; Johann Heinrich Greenawalt and Hans Greenawalt. [20]

The 1790 Southampton Township census record for Franklin County list Nicholas as sixteen years old and upward, and another male identified less than sixteen years old, and one female with no indicated age. The other male under 16 would have been born 1774-1790. If the female is Mary, she would have been 12 years old.

At thirty nine years old, Nicholas married fifteen year old Mary Miller on September 22nd1793 in Shippensburg Franklin County Pennsylvania. Mary was born January 18th1778 [21] in Shippensburg Cumberland County Pennsylvania. Records of her family have not been located.

The next record on Nicholas was a 1796 tax return for Southampton Township Franklin County, which shows Nicholas having two acres of land. This is most likely the Greenawalt home on present day Mongul Hill Road, Mongul Franklin County. [22]

The 1800 census for Southampton Township list Nicholas as forty five and over, one male ten to fifteen years old, one male under ten years old, and one female twenty six to forty four years old. This is perplexing. Nicholas married Mary in 1793, and she was born in 1778, so she is most likely the female. But who are the two other males? We cannot locate any 1810 records.

The 1820 record continues to confirm two other male children: Nicholas is listed as 45 years and older; one male under 10 years old (Jacob born 1812); two males 10 thru 15 years old (Peter born 1808 and Unknown born 1805 to 1810), two females 16 thru 25 years old (Catherine born 1804 and Elizabeth born 1806); and one female 45 years old or older (Mary born 1778).

By 1830 only Nicholas and Mary, Catherine, Elizabeth, and Jacob are listed. These records suggest there are possibly two other male children prior to the children Nicholas identified on his 1826 Revolutionary War Pension application. One candidate for the male born about 1800 is another Nicholas Greenawalt who is listed in the 1840 Washington Township Franklin County census record. This Nicholas cannot be located in any other record, before 1840, or after 1840. This Nicholas was born no earlier than 1800. However, if Nicholas’s pension application identified “all” of his “living” children, then they would have been all born in Franklin County Pennsylvania, and could have been named according to traditional German Baptism naming conventions for new born children. [23]

i.    Catherine Greenawalt was born 1804. 1st daughter after the mother's mother – We know that Nicholas’s mother was named Eva Catherine Reeg (vonHoff ), and Mary Miller’s mother could have also been named Catherine Miller. Catherine never married, and lived her entire life in Southampton Township Franklin County Pennsylvania. She was a seamstress, and her brother Jacob lived with her between 1850 and 1860.

ii.   Peter Greenawalt was born January 29th1808 and died June 9th1871. 1st son after the father's father – If the unknown males from 1790 and 1800 are Nicholas’s sons, then Peter would be the 3rd born son. The 3rd born son would be named after the father, or the father's oldest brother. Nicholas’s older brother was named Johann Peter Grünenwald, and I suspect the father’s name is too.

iii.  Elizabeth Greenawalt was born 1806. 2nd daughter after the father’s mother – Nicholas’s mother would be Elizabeth Grünenwald. We know that Nicholas’s mother was named Eva Catherine Reeg (vonHoff )

iv.   Jacob Greenawalt was born 1812 and died 1879. Jacob had no children. 2nd son after the mother’s father – Mary’s father would be also named Jacob Miller. If the unknown males from 1790 and 1800 are Nicholas’s sons, then Jacob would be the 4th born son, named after Nicholas’s Great-Grandfather Nicholas, or after Nicholas himself. Here we know that Nicholas’s youngest brother was Johann Jacob, who was born and died in 1759.

Except for a gap in 1810, where we could not locate Nicholas or Mary, they lived their entire life in and around the Shippensburg region; Southampton and Green Townships of Franklin County Pennsylvania. Nicholas died before his 77th birthday on September 28th1831, while living in Southampton Township Franklin County Pennsylvania.

After Nicholas died, Mary Miller-Greenawalt lived with her son Peter and his family, where she would die at the age of 80 on November 18th1858. Nicholas and Mary are both buried in the area of Green Village, Green Township Franklin County Pennsylvania. We have yet to verify this, but it the most likely place.

There are two direct connections that tie us to the ancestral line of Nicholas Greenawalt (1754-1831) of Franklin County and his son Peter using Nicholas’s Revolutionary War Pension record; and Peter Greenawalt (1808-1871) to Henry Greenawalt (1839-1923) using the Federal Census and Civil War Pension records.

End Notes

[1.] This information came to us through the efforts of David Greenawalt, great-great-great-great Grandson of Nicholas Greenawalt, who lives in Erlangen, Germany. His work comes from the original church records for the Nicholas’s Grüenewald family.

[2.] Friedrich Gruenewald and Anna Margaretha Hofferberth source listed the married date as 1771, but this must be a mistake when it was transcribed.

[3.] An original copy of the church book was not possible, since they said the writing was too faded to copy. Transribed from the original record from the Evangelical Church in Kirchbrombach, Brombachtal, Odenwald, Starkenburg, Hessen Germany, Taylor ~ Graham Library, 479 County Line Road, York Springs PA.

[4.] David Franklin Greenawalt and his son David were the Greenawalt family historians since the early 20thcentury. In 1988 David completed a Genealogy report on the family, and provided it to all of his cousins, including my grandfather.

[5.] Notes written by Mary Jane Greenawalt-Dunbar, daughter of Guy Angle Greenawalt and Mary Virginia, for the 75th birthday of Guy on December 10th1978. The bulk of the information came from numerous letters between Guy Greenawalt and relatives, and interviews conducted by Mary Jane Greenawalt-Dunbar with her father Guy Greenawalt.

[6.]  Page 774, The Greenawalt Family, The History of Lehigh County Pennsylvania, and Genealogical and Biographical Record of it’s Families, by Charles Rhodes Roberts, Rev John Baer Stoudt, Rev Thomas H. Krick, and William J. Dietrich, Vol II, Lehigh Valley Publishing Company LTD, Allentown Pennsylvania, 1914

[7.] Page 774, The Greenawalt Family, The History of Lehigh County Pennsylvania, and Genealogical and Biographical Record of it’s Families, by Charles Rhodes Roberts, Rev John Baer Stoudt, Rev Thomas H. Krick, and William J. Dietrich, Vol II, Lehigh Valley Publishing Company LTD, Allentown Pennsylvania, 1914.

[8.] An original copy of the church book was not possible, since they said the writing was too faded to copy. Transcribed from the original record from the Evangelical Church in Kirchbrombach, Brombachtal, Odenwald, Starkenburg, Hessen Germany, Taylor ~ Graham Library, 479 County Line Road, York Springs PA.

[9.] ship record is most likely our Nicholas; primarily because we have never found any other ship record, or any other person with the name Nicholas, with any variation of his surname spelling Grünenwald ~ Greenawalt.

[10.] Cowes is located on the Isle of Wight, a county and the largest island of England, located in the English Channel.

[11.] Gregory Allen Greenawalt, Eugene Allen Greenawalt, and research collaborated by Sandra Emerick Genealogist for the Lancaster County PA. Historical Society, Lancaster Pennsylvania

[12.] The ship’s origin was Rotterdam in the Netherlands, which also stopped in Cowes before moving on to Colonial Philadelphia.

[13.] 32-VoL. XVII, page 496, Who Took the Oath of Allegiance, 1727-1775, Immigrants into Pennsylvania, List of Foreigners Imported in the Ship Tyger, George Johnston Captain, From Rotterdam, Last from Cowes, Qualified November 19th1771

[14.] Charles F. Kerchner, Jr., P.E.,Member: Lehigh County Historical Society, Berks County Genealogical Society, Sons of the American Revolution, Palatines to America, Pennsylvania German Society

[15.] 32-VoL. XVII, page 496, Who Took the Oath of Allegiance, 1727-1775, Immigrants into Pennsylvania, List of Foreigners Imported in the Ship Tyger, George Johnston Captain, From Rotterdam, Last from Cowes, Qualified November 19th 1771

[16.] Nicholas Greenawalt Revolutionary War Service Timeline, Taylor ~ Graham Library, 479 County Line Road York Springs PA.

[17.] Vol. 1, p.736: Pennsylvania German Pioneers, Strassburger & Hinke, published 1934, Record of Indentures Bound Out As Apprentices, Servants, Etc. and of German and Other Redemptioners in the Office of the Mayor of the City of Philadelphia from October 3th1771 to October 5th1773, Genealogical Publishing Company; pub. 1973.

[18.] They were primarily from the Baden-Wurttemberg region of Hassock or Bühl Germany. This Greenawalt family would have migrated from the Swiss border area to Lower Palatinate Germany during the 17thcentury.

[19.] Until 1784 Franklin County was part of Cumberland County Pennsylvania. Nicholas lived in Southampton and Shippensburg Township of Cumberland County. Part of Southampton Township was apportioned to Franklin County in 1784, while the other part remained in Cumberland County.

[20.] Biographical annals of Franklin County, Pennsylvania : containing genealogical records of representative families, including many of the early settlers, and biographical sketches of prominent citizens.. Chicago: Genealogical Pub. Co. 1905.

[21.] Revolutionary War Pension Record for Nicholas Greenawalt, record W-2103, The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001

[22.] Franklin County Tax Records Southampton Township, Returns for 1796 Taxables, Kittochtinny Library, The Franklin County Historical Society - Kittochtinny 175 East King Street in Chambersburg Pennsylvania.

[23.] 18th Century Pennsylvania German Naming Customs & Patterns, August 18th1995, Charles F. Kerchner, Jr., Emmaus PA 18049

Bibliography

1. Mittelberger, Gottlieb. Journey to Pennsylvania in the Year 1750 and Return to Germany in the Year 1754 Grubb, Farley (June 1986). Redemptioner Immigration to Pennsylvania: Evidence on Contract Choice and Profitability. 46 (2 ed.). Journal of Economic History. pp. 407–418.

2. Klepp, Farley Grubb, Anne Pfaelzer de Ortiz, Susan E (2006). Souls for Sale: Two German Redemptioners Come to Revolutionary America. Pennsylvania State University Press.

3. Diffenderffer, Frank Ried (1977). The German immigration into Pennsylvania through the port of Philadelphia from 1700 to 1775 and The Redemptioners. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.

4. Herrick, Cheesman Abiah. White Servitude in Pennsylvania: Indentured and Redemption Labor in Colony and Commonwealth. New York: Negro Universities Press 1969, c1926 ix, 330 p., facsims., bibliography.

5. Pennsylvania in the War of the Revolution, Battalions and Line, 1775-1783, edited by John Blair Linn and William H. Engle M.D., Volume 1, Harrisburg Pennsylvania, Lanes, Hart, State Printer 1880.

6. Orderly-Book of the Pennsylvania State Regiment of Foot, May 10th to August 16th1777, John W. Jordan, Lewis Nicola and Walter Stewart, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 22, No. 1 (1898), pp. 57-70 (article consists of 14 pages), Published by: The Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

7. Pennsylvania Archives, Second Series, Vol. X, Samuel Hazard, Published under the direction of Matthew S. Quay, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Edited by John B. Linn and William H. Engle M.D. Printed for the Pennsylvania Secretary of the Commonwealth, Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction, Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg Pennsylvania, 1880.

8. New York 1776: The Continentals' first battle (Campaign), David Smith, Osprey Publishing (March 18th2008) Crossing the Delaware: George Washington and the Battle of Trenton, by Arlan Dean.

9. The Pennsylvania-German in the revolutionary war ..., Volume 17, Pages 1-542, By Henry Melchior Muhlenberg Richards.

10. Colonel Samuel Miles and Colonel Samuel Atlee Journals, Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. 1, 2nd Series, Page 512, and Colonel David Broadhead’s letter, Volume V, 1st series, page 21

11. January 9th1826 Application for Pension, Pension and Bounty Land Records in Nat'l Archives; American Revolutionary Soldiers of Franklin Co, PA pg 90,91 DAR Chambersburg, PA;

12. September 14th1934 Letter from Veteran's Administration to D.F. Greenawalt

13. Louis Houser, Page 103 and 104, Virginia Shannon Fendrick, American Revolutionary Soldiers of Franklin County Pennsylvania, for the Franklin County Chapter daughters of the American Revolution Chambersburg Pennsylvania, published by Historical Works Committee of the Franklin County Chapter, circa 1944.

14. Nicholas Greenawalt, Page 90 and 91, Virginia Shannon Fendrick, American Revolutionary Soldiers of Franklin County Pennsylvania, for the Franklin County Chapter daughters of the American Revolution Chambersburg Pennsylvania, published by Historical Works Committee of the Franklin County Chapter, circa 1944.

15. American Revolutionary Soldiers, Franklin County Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Archives, 2nd Series, Vol. 10, p. 431

16. American Revolutionary soldiers of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, Fendrick, Virginia Shannon.. American Revolutionary soldiers of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, Chambersburg, Pa.: Historical Works Committee of the Franklin County Chapter, c1944.

17. George G. Creamer Civil War Index: National Archives and Records Administration. Civil War Pension Index: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2000.Original data: General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. T288, 546 rolls.

18. 1790 Nicholas Greenawalt Census: Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: M637_9; Page: 281; Image: 156; Family History Library Film: 0568149, Original data: First Census of the United States, 1790 (NARA microfilm publication M637, 12 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

19. 1800 Nicholas Greenawalt Census: Green, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: 38; Page: 914; Image: 317; Family History Library Film: 363341; Original data: Second Census of the United States, 1800. (NARA microfilm publication M32, 52 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

20. 1820 Nicholas Grunawatt Census: Greene, Franklin, Pennsylvania, Page: 125; NARA Roll: M33_101; Image: 164. Original data: Fourth Census of the United States, 1820. (NARA microfilm publication M33, 142 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

21. 1830 Nicholas Greenwatt Census Southampton, Franklin, Pennsylvania, Page: 210; NARA Roll: M19-151; Family History Film: 0020625Original data: Fifth Census of the United States, 1830. (NARA microfilm publication M19, 201 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

22. 1830 Peter Greenewalt Census: Southampton, Franklin, Pennsylvania, Page: 205; NARA Roll: M19-151; Family History Film: 0020625.Original data: Fifth Census of the United States, 1830. (NARA microfilm publication M19, 201 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

23. 1840 Nicholas Greenwall Census: Washington, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: 458; Page: 241; Image: 490; Family History Library Film: 0020544.Original data: Sixth Census of the United States, 1840. (NARA microfilm publication M704, 580 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

24. 1840 Peter Grenewatt Census: Green Village, Green, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: 458; Page: 189; Image: 386; Family History Library Film: 0020544.Original data: Sixth Census of the United States, 1840. (NARA microfilm publication M704, 580 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

25. 1850 Peter and his mother Mary Greenawalt Census: Southampton, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: M432_782; Page: 353B; Image: 204. Original data: Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C. 26. 1850 Jacob Greenwalt Census: Southampton, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: M432_782; Page: 354A; Image: 205. Original data: Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C.

27. 1850 Elizabeth Greenawalt-Creamer Census: Southampton, Cumberland, Pennsylvania; Roll: M432_772; Page: 179B; Image: 366. Original data: Seventh Census of the United States, 1850; (National Archives Microfilm Publication M432, 1009 rolls); Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29; National Archives, Washington, D.C.

28. 1860 Geo Cramer Census: Letterkenny, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: M653_1111; Page: 492; Image: 499; Family History Library Film: 805111. Original data: 1860 U.S. census, population schedule. NARA microfilm publication M653, 1,438 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

29. 1860 Peter Greenawalt Census: Greene, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: M653_1112; Page: 859; Image: 324; Family History Library Film: 805112. Original data: 1860 U.S. census, population schedule. NARA microfilm publication M653, 1,438 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration.

30. 1870 Peter Greenawalt Census: Southampton, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: M593_1346; Page: 548A; Image: 457; Family History Library Film: 552845.Original data; 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration. Minnesota census schedules for 1870. NARA microfilm publication T132, 13 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration.

31. 1870 George G. Creamer Census: Letterkenny, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: M593_1346; Page: 352B; Image: 64; Family History Library Film: 552845.Original data: 1870 U.S. census, population schedules. NARA microfilm publication M593, 1,761 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Minnesota census schedules for 1870. NARA microfilm publication T132, 13 rolls. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

32. 1880 George Creamer Census: Letterkenny, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: 1131; Family History Film: 1255131; Page: 155C; Enumeration District: 94; Image: 0315. Original data: Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. (NARA microfilm publication T9, 1,454 rolls). Records of the Bureau of the Census, Record Group 29. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

33. 1900 Mary E. Creamer Census: Letterkenny, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Roll: T623_1413; Page: 15B; Enumeration District: 46. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1900. T623, 1854 rolls.